Top Facts about Urology

Urology is a branch of medicine that treats issues of the male and female urinary tract as well as male reproductive organs. It involves both medicinal treatments as well as surgical treatment and is referred to as genitourinary surgery. There is much demand for the best urology hospital in India.

Organs treated by urology include male reproductive organs, urethra, urinary bladder, ureters, adrenal glands and kidneys. The reproductive and urinary tracts are linked closely and disorders in one impact the other. Urology mixes the management of medical conditions like urinary tract infections with managing surgical conditions like kidney stones, prostate cancer or congenital abnormalities.

Being a medical system that deals with multiple organs, urology can be broken down to various sub-specialties:

Endourology

It is branch that deals with the urinary tract. In modern times, it is mostly associated with minimally invasive procedures. Endourological surgery is carried out through small cameras and instruments inserted in the urinary tract. Most of the urinary tract can be accessed via the urethra, making possible urethral procedures, prostate surgery etc. The advent of robotics and laparoscopy has further divided this category.

Laparoscopy

It is fast changing branch of urology and replaces open surgical procedures. Surgery assisted by robotic systems is now useful in procedures for urethra, kidney, prostate etc. Today, several prostate surgeries are assisted by robots which have become controversial as robotic surgery is highly expensive and the technology is monopolized by one company.

Urologic Oncology

This branch focuses on surgical treatment of genito-urinary diseases like cancer of ureters, kidneys, bladder, adrenal glands, prostate, etc. as well as fascia and muscles of the area. The cancer of such regions is managed by an oncologist along with a urologist on basis of type of treatment (medicinal/ surgical). In most advanced countries, minimally invasive procedures are used for cancer treatment.

Neurourology

It deals with nervous system control of the genito-urinary system and issues related to abnormal urination by patients. This is linked to neurological disorders like spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, Multiple sclerosis, stroke etc. These can interfere with lower urinary tract function such as urinary retention, urinary incontinence, etc. Therapy for disorders of nervous system ranges from self-catherization of the bladder to sacral neuromodulation.

Paediatric Urology

This deals with urologic disorders of children. Disorders include vesicoureteral reflux, underdeveloped genitalia, enuresis, congenital defects and cryptorchidism (testes that has not descended).

Andrology

It is the medical branch which deals with urological problems of men as well as their reproductive problems. These include prostate cancer and fertility problems in men. It is the counterpart of gynecology in females.

Reconstructive Urology

It is special field of urology which restores both function and structure of the genito-urinary tract. Trauma issues (industrial accidents, gunshot wounds, and auto-accidents), prostate procedures, blockages, obstructions, diseases and sometimes, child birth may need reconstructive surgery. Genitalia, ureters, and urinary bladder are other areas for reconstructive surgery.

Female Urology

It is a branch of urology dealing with urinary incontinence, prolapsed pelvic organ and overactive bladder. Many surgeons also practice reconstructive urology and neurourology. Solutions for such problems may be medicinal or surgical. This field overlaps with urogynecology, a sub-discipline of gynaecology.

Reasons for Referral to Urologists

Patients may be referred to a urologist for a wide range of conditions like:

Urinary Tract Infections

Such infections emerge when bacteria move from digestive tract to the urethra. Some of the symptoms include chills, fever, nausea, vomiting, incontinence, pain and abnormal urination. This condition impacts mostly women patients.

Incontinence

A problem in the urinary system can cause involuntary loss of bladder control. In case of women, this may be caused by weakening of muscles of pelvic floor in time of pregnancy.

Kidney disease

Kidney damage can manifest as high blood pressure, swelling of ankles and hand etc. When kidneys fail to function properly, it leads to kidney failure that may prove fatal.

Male infertility

This may be caused by damage to male reproductive tract. Often, surgery is the solution for conditions like Varicoceles.

Renal transplantation

Following failure of kidneys, a patient may need a kidney transplant.

Oncological issues

This involves treatments of cancers in the urological or male reproductive system. Cancers of the prostate, kidneys, and bladder are treated by urologists in collaboration with oncologists.

Kidney stones

Tiny but hard deposits made from acid and mineral salts form in the kidneys and pass into the urethras. This can impact urination and result in vomiting, nausea and pain.

These are all top facts about the field of urology. It is good to conduct research on and get treatment from the best urology hospital in India.

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